Important terms used in Computers

Computer Fundamentals

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Please find below the Important terms of Computer Fundamentals:-


Access Terms:- Access time is the time from the start of one access of the storage device to the time when the next access can be started.

Accessory:- An Accessory is a device attached to a host computer, but not part of it, and is more or less dependent on the host. It expands the host’s capabilities but does not form part of the core computer architecture.

Examples are computer printers, image scanners, tape drives, microphones, loudspeakers, webcams, and digital cameras.

Active Cell:- The cell continues the value being used or modified in a spreadsheet program, and that is highlighted by the cell pointer. Also known as current cell.

Active Window:- The window in Microsoft Windows with which the user may interact.

Accumulator:- The computer register in which the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is formed.

Algorithm:- A standard method for computing something: essentially, a mathematical recipe.

Analog:- A continuous waveform signal that can be used to represent such things as a sound, temperature, and velocity.

Analog Computer:- A computer in which numerical data are represented by measurable physical variables, such as electrical.

Antivirus:- Computer antivirus refers to a software program that can protect your computer from unwanted viruses and remove any that penetrate your computer’s defenses.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):- An arithmetic-logic unit(ALU) is the part of a computer processor(CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.

Artificial Intelligence:- Artificial Intelligence(AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as “the study and design of intelligent agents” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment.

ASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange):- ASCII, a code for information exchange between computers made by different companies;’ a string of 7 binary digits represents each character; used in most microcomputers.

Assembly Language: A programming language that is once removed from a computer’s machine language. Machine languages consist entirely of numbers and are almost impossible for humans to read and write.

Auxiliary Memory:- A high-speed memory bank used in mainframes and supercomputers. It is not directly addressable by the CPU; rather, it functions as a disk. Data are transferred from auxiliary memory to main memory over a high-bandwidth channel.

Backup:- A backup or the process of backing up means making copies of data that may be used to restore the original data after a data loss event.

Bandwidth:- In computer networking and computer science, bandwidth, network bandwidth, data bandwidth or digital bandwidth is a bit rate measure of available or consumed data communication resources expressed in bits/second or multiples of it(Kilobits/s, megabits/s, etc).

BIOS:- “Basic Input Output System”. This is the basic set of instructions that tell the computer how to act. Most computers have these instructions built into a chip that plugs into the motherboard,

Bar code:- A bar code is the small image of lines(bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards, and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person, or location.

Binary:- Computers are based on the binary numbering system, which consists of just two unique numbers, o and 1.

Biometric Device: Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits.

Bitmap:- In computer graphics, a bitmap or pixmap is a type of memory organization or image file format used to store digital images.

Bluetooth:- Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances between fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks with high levels of security.

Booting:- To boot a computer is to load an operating system into the computer’s main memory or random access memory (RAM).

Browse:- In database systems, browse means to view data. Many database systems support a special browse mode, in which you can flip through fields and records quickly. Usually, you cannot modify data while you are in browse mode.

Bug:- A software bug is the common term used to describe an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that produces an incorrect or unexpected result, or caused it to behave in unintended ways,

Byte: A byte is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits.

CD ROM(Compact Disk- Read Only Memory):– A type of optical disk capable of storing large amounts of data- up to 1 GB, although the most common size is 700 MB(megabytes).

CD- R(Compact Disk-Recordable):– A type of CD disk that enables you to write onto it in multiple sessions.

Central Processing Unit(CPU):- The CPU is the computer’s control center. The actual CPU is about 4 cm square, yet it is the most critical part of the computer.

CMOS:- “Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor”. A CMOS computer circuit consumes very little power and is used in computers to keep track of the system setup information, data, time, type of disk and hard drives, etc, that a computer has installed.

Compressed File:- Computer files that have been reduced in size by a compression program. such programs are available for all computer systems.

Central Processing Unit (CPU):– The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is an electronic component that interprets and carries out the instructions of any application that runs on a computer. It is the place where all the computing is done.

Data:- Representations of facts. The raw material of information.

Database:- The integrated data resource for a computer-based information system.

DDR:0 This is a new type of RAM called Double Data Rate RAM. It is used in some the video cards such as the Nvidia GeForce cards.

Desktop:- The screen in Windows upon which icons, windows, a background, and so on are displayed.

Desk Top Publishing (DTP):– Software that allows users to produce near-typeset-quality copy for newsletters, advertisements, and many other printing needs, all from the confines of a microcomputer.

Dial-up:-  A dial-up Internet account allows you to use a computer with modern and appropriate software to connect to the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The software “dials” the ISP’s access numbers and you can then send an E-mail.

Digital:- Term used to describe any information that has been translated into a corresponding series of 1s and 0s; any information text, sound, image, color, etc. may be digitized.

Digital Computer:- A reference to any system based on discrete data, such as the binary nature of computers.

Digital Video/ Versatile Disk (DVD):– The successor technology to the CD-ROM, that can store up to 10 gigabytes or more.

Disk/platter:– A magnetically encoded storage medium in the form of a plate.

Disk Operating System(DOS):- A disk operating system manages disks and other system resources. It is a subset of OSes, sort of an archaic term for the same.

Domin Naames:- A name given to a host computer on the Internet; E-mail domain names are good examples of domain names(for example in, the domain name is

Downloading:- Retrieving a file or group of files from the Internet so that they can be stored on a local hard drive. By accessing a page, you have, in fact, downloaded all the information on the page.

Electronic Mail:- When a message is sent, the message is sent first to the SMTP serve, which acts as an “outbox” for users. The message is then relayed to the appropriate mail server, which can be found listed after the @ symbol in the recipient’s E-mail address.

Ethernet:- A transport method(protocol) used to connect computers to a LAN(Local Area Network) and exchange data.

File:- A collection of related records, A named area on a disk- a storage device that contains a program or digitized information(text, image, sound, and so on). A component of an overall program or application.

Font:- In a simplistic sense, a font can be thought of as the physical description of a character set. While the character set will define what sets of bits map to what letters, numbers, and other symbols, the font will define what each letter, number, and other symbol looks like.

Format:- Noun: The logical or physical arrangement of the tracks and sectors on a floppy diskette or a hard disk.  Verb: To prepare a disk or diskette, dividing it into sectors so that it is ready to receive data.

Hacker: An individual with vast experience with security protocols who attempts to illegally access secure servers in an attempt to download private information, damage systems, or act in some other way to “free information”.

Hard Copy: A readable printed copy of computer output.

Hard Disk:- Hard disk is a permanent file and data storage device housed in a computer case.

Hardware:- Collective term for any computer-related object that can be touched physically.

Hexadecimal Number system:- A numeric notation system with a base of 16 different symbols frequently used to specify addresses in computer memory. In hexadecimal notation, the decimal numbers 0 through 15 are represented by the decimal digits 0 through 9 and the alphabetic “digits” A through F.

Home Page:- The Web page is the starting point for accessing information at a site or in a particular area.

Host:- A computer, attached to a network that provides services to another computer beyond simply storing and forwarding information.

HyperText Markup Language:- This is the code by which web pages are created so they can be graphically organized in various ways. The web browser downloads the text of the HTML file and then decodes the text into what you can see here.

HTML:- “Hyper Text Mark-up Language” which is used to format information so that it can be structured and made accessible to the World Wide Web.

HTTP:- “Hypertext Transfer Protocol” The protocol that forms the basis of World Wide Web technology. HTTP is the set of rules governing the software that transports hyperlinked files along with the Internet.

Information Technology(IT):- Including ICT(Information and Communication Technology) is the application of appropriate technologies to information processing.


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