computer systems & Organization

Computer Fundamentals

Important terms used in Computers

Hi Friends,

Hope you all doing well !

Please find below the Important terms of Computer Fundamentals:-


Access Terms:- Access time is the time from the start of one access of the storage device to the time when the next access can be started.

Accessory:- An Accessory is a device attached to a host computer, but not part of it, and is more or less dependent on the host. It expands the host’s capabilities but does not form part of the core computer architecture.

Examples are computer printers, image scanners, tape drives, microphones, loudspeakers, webcams, and digital cameras.

Active Cell:- The cell continues the value being used or modified in a spreadsheet program, and that is highlighted by the cell pointer. Also known as current cell.

Active Window:- The window in Microsoft Windows with which the user may interact.

Accumulator:- The computer register in which the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is formed.

Algorithm:- A standard method for computing something: essentially, a mathematical recipe.

Analog:- A continuous waveform signal that can be used to represent such things as a sound, temperature, and velocity.

Analog Computer:- A computer in which numerical data are represented by measurable physical variables, such as electrical.

Antivirus:- Computer antivirus refers to a software program that can protect your computer from unwanted viruses and remove any that penetrate your computer’s defenses.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):- An arithmetic-logic unit(ALU) is the part of a computer processor(CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.

Artificial Intelligence:- Artificial Intelligence(AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as “the study and design of intelligent agents” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment.

ASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange):- ASCII, a code for information exchange between computers made by different companies;’ a string of 7 binary digits represents each character; used in most microcomputers.

Assembly Language: A programming language that is once removed from a computer’s machine language. Machine languages consist entirely of numbers and are almost impossible for humans to read and write.

Auxiliary Memory:- A high-speed memory bank used in mainframes and supercomputers. It is not directly addressable by the CPU; rather, it functions as a disk. Data are transferred from auxiliary memory to main memory over a high-bandwidth channel.

Backup:- A backup or the process of backing up means making copies of data that may be used to restore the original data after a data loss event.

Bandwidth:- In computer networking and computer science, bandwidth, network bandwidth, data bandwidth or digital bandwidth is a bit rate measure of available or consumed data communication resources expressed in bits/second or multiples of it(Kilobits/s, megabits/s, etc).

BIOS:- “Basic Input Output System”. This is the basic set of instructions that tell the computer how to act. Most computers have these instructions built into a chip that plugs into the motherboard,

Bar code:- A bar code is the small image of lines(bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards, and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person, or location.

Binary:- Computers are based on the binary numbering system, which consists of just two unique numbers, o and 1.

Biometric Device: Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits.

Bitmap:- In computer graphics, a bitmap or pixmap is a type of memory organization or image file format used to store digital images.

Bluetooth:- Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances between fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks with high levels of security.

Booting:- To boot a computer is to load an operating system into the computer’s main memory or random access memory (RAM).

Browse:- In database systems, browse means to view data. Many database systems support a special browse mode, in which you can flip through fields and records quickly. Usually, you cannot modify data while you are in browse mode.

Bug:- A software bug is the common term used to describe an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that produces an incorrect or unexpected result, or caused it to behave in unintended ways,

Byte: A byte is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits.

CD ROM(Compact Disk- Read Only Memory):– A type of optical disk capable of storing large amounts of data- up to 1 GB, although the most common size is 700 MB(megabytes).

CD- R(Compact Disk-Recordable):– A type of CD disk that enables you to write onto it in multiple sessions.

Central Processing Unit(CPU):- The CPU is the computer’s control center. The actual CPU is about 4 cm square, yet it is the most critical part of the computer.

CMOS:- “Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor”. A CMOS computer circuit consumes very little power and is used in computers to keep track of the system setup information, data, time, type of disk and hard drives, etc, that a computer has installed.

Compressed File:- Computer files that have been reduced in size by a compression program. such programs are available for all computer systems.

Central Processing Unit (CPU):– The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is an electronic component that interprets and carries out the instructions of any application that runs on a computer. It is the place where all the computing is done.

Data:- Representations of facts. The raw material of information.

Database:- The integrated data resource for a computer-based information system.

DDR:0 This is a new type of RAM called Double Data Rate RAM. It is used in some the video cards such as the Nvidia GeForce cards.

Desktop:- The screen in Windows upon which icons, windows, a background, and so on are displayed.

Desk Top Publishing (DTP):– Software that allows users to produce near-typeset-quality copy for newsletters, advertisements, and many other printing needs, all from the confines of a microcomputer.

Dial-up:-  A dial-up Internet account allows you to use a computer with modern and appropriate software to connect to the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The software “dials” the ISP’s access numbers and you can then send an E-mail.

Digital:- Term used to describe any information that has been translated into a corresponding series of 1s and 0s; any information text, sound, image, color, etc. may be digitized.

Digital Computer:- A reference to any system based on discrete data, such as the binary nature of computers.

Digital Video/ Versatile Disk (DVD):– The successor technology to the CD-ROM, that can store up to 10 gigabytes or more.

Disk/platter:– A magnetically encoded storage medium in the form of a plate.

Disk Operating System(DOS):- A disk operating system manages disks and other system resources. It is a subset of OSes, sort of an archaic term for the same.

Domin Naames:- A name given to a host computer on the Internet; E-mail domain names are good examples of domain names(for example in, the domain name is

Downloading:- Retrieving a file or group of files from the Internet so that they can be stored on a local hard drive. By accessing a page, you have, in fact, downloaded all the information on the page.

Electronic Mail:- When a message is sent, the message is sent first to the SMTP serve, which acts as an “outbox” for users. The message is then relayed to the appropriate mail server, which can be found listed after the @ symbol in the recipient’s E-mail address.

Ethernet:- A transport method(protocol) used to connect computers to a LAN(Local Area Network) and exchange data.

File:- A collection of related records, A named area on a disk- a storage device that contains a program or digitized information(text, image, sound, and so on). A component of an overall program or application.

Font:- In a simplistic sense, a font can be thought of as the physical description of a character set. While the character set will define what sets of bits map to what letters, numbers, and other symbols, the font will define what each letter, number, and other symbol looks like.

Format:- Noun: The logical or physical arrangement of the tracks and sectors on a floppy diskette or a hard disk.  Verb: To prepare a disk or diskette, dividing it into sectors so that it is ready to receive data.

Hacker: An individual with vast experience with security protocols who attempts to illegally access secure servers in an attempt to download private information, damage systems, or act in some other way to “free information”.

Hard Copy: A readable printed copy of computer output.

Hard Disk:- Hard disk is a permanent file and data storage device housed in a computer case.

Hardware:- Collective term for any computer-related object that can be touched physically.

Hexadecimal Number system:- A numeric notation system with a base of 16 different symbols frequently used to specify addresses in computer memory. In hexadecimal notation, the decimal numbers 0 through 15 are represented by the decimal digits 0 through 9 and the alphabetic “digits” A through F.

Home Page:- The Web page is the starting point for accessing information at a site or in a particular area.

Host:- A computer, attached to a network that provides services to another computer beyond simply storing and forwarding information.

HyperText Markup Language:- This is the code by which web pages are created so they can be graphically organized in various ways. The web browser downloads the text of the HTML file and then decodes the text into what you can see here.

HTML:- “Hyper Text Mark-up Language” which is used to format information so that it can be structured and made accessible to the World Wide Web.

HTTP:- “Hypertext Transfer Protocol” The protocol that forms the basis of World Wide Web technology. HTTP is the set of rules governing the software that transports hyperlinked files along with the Internet.

Information Technology(IT):- Including ICT(Information and Communication Technology) is the application of appropriate technologies to information processing.


Thank you

Computer Fundamentals


Hi Friends,

Hope you all doing well !

Please find below the Important terms of the Computer Fundamentals part 2:-


Input/Output(I/O):- A generic reference to input and/or output to a computer.

IP:- “Internet Protocol”. The standard protocol is used by systems communicating across the Internet.

IP Address:- A digital code that precisely locates a computer connected to the Internet.

MAC:- “Macintosh”, the other type of personal computer, manufactured by Apple Computer.

Inkjet Printer:- A non-impact printer in which the print head contains independently controlled injection chambers that squirt ink droplets on the paper to form letters and images.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN):- A digital telecommunications standard for data delivery over twisted-pair lines with transmission speeds up to 128 Kbps(two 64 Kbps line pairs).

InterFace:- A specific hardware or software connection. Making two devices capable of communication. Used most often to refer to the design of hardware and software that allows connection of network components and transfer of information. ‘

Internet:-Internet is the largest wide area network in the world which links millions of computers. Through the internet information can be shared, a business can be conducted and research can be done.

IP Address (Internet Protocol Address):- A unique numerical Internet address identifying any piece of equipment hooked up to the Internet.

Intranet:- An Internet-like network whose scope is restricted to the networks within a particular organization.

Java:- Java is a programming language and has a “sandboxed” code interpreter which permits programs to be downloaded to PCs from the Web, but isolates these applications from access to other applications running on the PC.

JPEG(Joint Photographic Experts  Group):-A bit-mapped file format that compresses image size.

Jukebox:- A storage device for multiple sets of CD- ROMs, tape cartridges, or disk modules enabling ready access to vast amounts of online data.

Keyboard:- Keyboard is one of the computer components which is used to input data to a computer. It is called an input device.

Laptop:- Laptop is a small and lightweight computer in which all the main parts are fitted into a single unit. It is designed to be carried around. Particularly, it is ideal for travelers, journalists, commentators, and professionals who want to work both at the office and at home.

LCD:- “Liquid Crystal Display”. It is the technology used for displays in notebooks and monitors for computers.

Linux:- An open-source spinoff of the UNIX operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms and is made available for free over the Internet.

Local Area Network:- Many multiple-computer homes have found ways to link their computers through a central device called a “hub”. This way, each computer can share information directly, without the need to transfer data via a portable storage device, like a floppy disk. A properly set up LAN can also permit the connected computers to access the Internet through a single Internet account.

Log on & Log off:- Each server that is accessed must have some way to ensure the security of their sensitive information. Thus, servers restrict access by forcing users to “log on” with either personal access codes or anonymously. Anonymous access usually requires the individual’s e-mail address, and the user’s IP address is also logged.

Machine Language:- Machine language consists of the raw numbers that can be directly understood by a particular processor. Each processor’s machine language will be different from other processors’ machine language.

Mainframe Computer:- A large computer that can serve many users simultaneously in support of enterprise-wide applications.

Memory:- One of the essential components of a computer’s central processing unit. Memory is the area where information and programs are actively processed.

Microcomputer:- A small computer, for instance, a Personnel Computer or Laptop.

Microprocessor:- A computer on a single chip. The central processing component of a microcomputer.

Modem:- Modem is a telecommunication device that converts digital signals to analog and vice versa. It is used in dial-up internet connection to connect a telephone line to a computer.

Monitor:- The high-resolution TV-like device that displays your computer’s output. Today’s monitors have much better quality displays than any TV is capable of producing.

Motherboard:- It is the core of a computer system. It is the circuit board where all other parts connect. It communicates and controls the overall system. No motherboard means no computer system.

MP3:- This stands for “MPEG I Audio Layer-3” and is digital. compressed music file. MP3 files are often downloaded or exchanged between people online.

MPEG:- “Motion Picture Experts Group” A video file compression system which is used on the web.

Mouse. A small, handheld device attached to a computer; includes one or more buttons that allow the user to select graphics or text onscreen.

Multimedia application:- Computer applications that involve the integration of text, sound, graphics, motion video, and animation.

Multitasking:- The concurrent execution of more than one program at a time.

Offline:- Pertaining to data that is not accessible by, or hardware devices that are not connected to, a networked computer system.

Online (a) Noun:- Pertaining to data and/or hardware devices accessible to and under the control of a networked computer system.

(b) Adverb:- Connected. You are online if you are working on your computer while it is connected to another computer. Your printer is online if it is connected to your computer and ready to accept data.

Operating System or Platform:- These terms refer to the software that your computer uses to operate and not to a manufacturer or company. Windows 2000, Windows XP, and OSX(Mac) are common platforms.

Password:- Password is a series of characters used to protect resources in a computer from unauthorized access. It is one of the ways to secure computer information from unauthorized users.

Peripheral:- A physical device(such as a printer, scanner, or disk subsystem) that is externally attached to a workstation or to the network.

Plugin:- A helper application that works within a browser. It adds more functionality to a browser; commonly associated with the Netscape Navigator browser software.

Personal Computer:- A small computer designed for use by an individual, a microcomputer.

Processor: The logical component of a computer system that interprets and executes program instructions.

Program:-(1) Noun:- Computer instructions structured and ordered in a manner that, when executed, cause a computer to perform a particular function.

(2) Verb:- The act of producing computer software to perform some application.

Programming:- The act of writing a computer program.

Programming language:- A language programmers use to communicate instructions to a computer.

RAM:- “Random Access Memory”. Random Access memory, the computer’s “short term” memory is used whenever an action is performed by a program. It is also called the “active memory”. RAM is what the computer uses to run all applications. It is usually specified in Megabytes or MB.

ROM:- “Read Only Memory”, in which information is saved once and can never be altered for example. CD-ROM drives read information saved on compact disks(CD’S). A CD-ROM drive can read that information, but cannot make changes to it.

Scanner:- A scanner is a piece of hardware that will examine a picture and produce a computer file that represents what it sees. A digital camera is a related device.

Search Engine:- A tool used which matches keywords you enter with titles and descriptions on the internet. It then displays the matches allowing you to easily locate a subject. Similar to a card catalog, but not as efficient.

Server:- A computer or its software that “serves” other computers by administering network files and network operations. Three types of Internet servers are Web servers, e-mail servers, and Gopher servers.

Surfing:- The random, aimless exploration of web pages is achieved through the following links that look interesting within a document.

Software:- Software is the set of instructions developed by programming language which tells a computer what to do.

System software:- controls the overall operation of a computer. Some of the activities include managing system memory, controlling system resources, executing computer hardware and applications.

Unix:- UNIX is a family of OSes, each being made by a different company or organization but all offering a very similar look and feel.

Upload:- The process of transferring information from one computer to another, generally from a client to a server. For example, you upload a file from your computer to a server or the internet.

USB:-“Universal Serial Bus”. This is a style of port connection that is used by many peripheral devices such as Palm Pilots, phones, scanners, printers etc. This type of connection is much faster than more traditional kinds of connections such as serial and parallel ports.

URL:- “Universal Resource Locator”. The specific path to a World Wide Web file, including filename and extension.

UPS:- “Uninterruptible Power Supply”. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that allows your computer to keep running for at least a short time when the primary power source is lost.

Virus:- A virus is a program that will seek to duplicate itself in memory and on disks, but in a subtle way that will not immediately be noticed. A computer on the same network as an infected computer or that uses an infected disk or that downloads and runs an infected program can itself become infected.

WAN:- “Wide Area Network”. A larger computer network that is geographically dispersed, such as one that stretches across a university campus.

Web Page:- A single screen (document) on a Web site.

Webcasting:- “Webcasting” is a term that describes the ability to use the Web to deliver delayed versions of sound or video broadcasts.

Website:- The location of published hypertext content. Physically, a Website can occupy an entire Web server or a part of a server; or it can be spread out among different servers as long as its sections are all linked directly, to the same home page.

WLAN:- “Wireless Local Area Network”. In a wireless local area network(WLAN), an access point is a station that transmits and receives data, sometimes reffered to as a transceiver.

World Wide Web or WWW:- This is the part of the Internet that you access. The World Wide Web is so named because each page in the WWW has links to other pages, which have links to other pages, and so on, creating what could visually be seen as a web-like network of links.


Thank you